Applications Of Stones
- The applications of stones have greatly influenced the works of Civil Engineering.
- Stones have been of very great importance as a building material since the prehistoric age.
- For the structural purpose, granite, gneiss, trap, sandstone, limestone, marble, quartzite and slate are most useful.
- For manufacture purpose, items and materials from natural stones are classified as Sawn(facing slabs, windows sill slabs, etc.), Split(curbstones, paving blocks, etc.), Roughly Split(bedded stone), Fractured(quarry stone), Crushed(crushed stone, artificial sand) and Ground(ground mineral powder, stone powder).
In Building Items:
- Elements of stairs, landings, parapets and guard rails are manufactured from granite, marble, limestone, tuff etc.
- Pedestal slabs and stones for farming doorways, cornices and window-sill slabs are made from the same material as the facing slabs.
In Foundation and Wall Items:
- Quarry, split and sawn stones from rocks are used to erect the substructure of buildings.
- The piece stones are sawn and split from limestone, sandstone, dolomite and volcanic tuff are used for walls, piers, etc
In Facing and Architectural Items:
- Facing slabs and stones, stairs and landings, parapets, etc. are made up of slabs sawn or split from semi-finished product blocks with the glossy, dull, ground, sawn, pointed, fluted or rock finish.
- Facing slabs of granite, basalt, marble, breccia, limestone, sandstone and volcanic tuff are generally used.
In Road Construction Items:
- Curb stones are intended to separate roadways from sidewalks and Paving blocks are used for pavements.
- Cobblestones are used to reinforce slopes of earthworks and banks of water basins.
- Crushed stones are used for road construction.
In Underground Structures and Bridges:
- The Underground structures and bridges are mainly built of slabs and stones from igneous and sedimentary rocks.
- Tunnels and above-water elements are built of granite, diorite, gabbro and basalt with compressive strengths not less than 50 MPa.
- Face stones and facing slabs for tunnels are given rock face, grooved or fluted finishes.
In Heat and Chemically Resistant Items:
- The Heat and Chemical resistant items are generally manufactured from non-weathered rocks.
- They are made from chromite, basalt, andesite and tuffs for high-temperature working conditions.
- By using slabs made of granite, syenite and siliceous stones, building elements are protected against acid(except hydrofluoric acid and fluorosilicic acids).
- Limestones, dolomites, magnesite and marble show excellent resistance against alkalis.
- Whenever high temperature and chemical attack is expected, crushed stone and sand for concrete and mortar are used.
In Hydraulic Structures:
- Hydraulic structures are built with natural stones of regular or irregular shape from igneous, metamorphic or sedimentary rocks.
- The stones should not be weathered or have any interlayers of soft rocks or porous shells and visible stratifications and cracks.
*Source- Internet, Books and Self-Analysis