History Of Civil Engineering
Civil engineering is said to be a professional engineering branch which basically deals with the design, construction, and maintenance of the physical and naturally built environment, including public works such as roads, bridges, canals, dams, airports, sewerage systems, pipelines, structural components of buildings, and railways, etc.
It is said that Engineering has been an aspect of life since the beginnings of human existence and civilisations. The earliest practice of civil engineering may have commenced between 4000 and 2000 BC in ancient Egypt, the Indus Valley Civilization, and ancient Iraq when humans started to abandon a nomadic existence, creating a need for the construction of shelter. During this time, transportation became increasingly important leading to the development of the wheel and sailing.
Initially, the term engineer and architect were mainly geographical variations referring to the same occupation, and often used interchangeably. In the 18th century, the term civil engineering was used for the first time to distinguish it from other Military Engineerings.
The teachings of Civil Engineering was initially started in France (1747) named as École Nationale des Ponts et Chaussées.
John Smeaton is regarded as the Father of Civil Engineering and also the first man to be called a Civil Engineer after constructing the Eddystone Lighthouse. He and his colleagues later formed Smeatonian Society Of Civil Engineers.
Sub-Disciplines Of Civil Engineering
Civil Engineering is a very broad and vast branch of engineering, It has many sub-disciplines and it's more with time. The main recognized sub-disciplines of civil engineering are as follows:-
Construction Engineering is that sub-discipline of Civil Engineering which deals with construction, designing, planning and management of infrastructures (Buildings, roads, bridges, tunnels, dams, airports, etc.).
- Coastal Engineering is that branch of civil engineering which is specifically related to construction and planning in the coastal areas.
- The coastal areas mainly includes coasts of Oceans, Seas, Estuaries, and big lakes.
- Environmental engineering is a sub-discipline that is related with chemistry, biology, ecology, geology, hydraulics, hydrology, microbiology, etc.
- Environmental engineers devise solutions for wastewater management, water and air pollution control, recycling, waste disposal, and public health.
- Environmental engineers study the effect of technological advances on the environment, addressing local and worldwide environmental issues such as acid rain, global warming, ozone depletion, water pollution and air pollution from automobile exhausts and industrial sources.
- Structural engineering is a sub-discipline of civil engineering in which engineers are trained to design the 'bones and muscles' that create the form and shape of man-made structures.
- Structural engineers need to understand and calculate the stability, strength and rigidity of built structures for buildings and nonbuilding structures.
- Surveying or land surveying is the technique of determining the terrestrial or three-dimensional positions of points and the distances and angles between them.
- Surveyors use equipment, such as total stations, robotic total stations, theodolites, GNSS receivers, retroreflectors, 3D scanners, radios, clinometer, handheld tablets, digital levels, subsurface locators, drones, GIS, and surveying software.
- Geotechnical engineering is the branch of civil engineering concerned with the engineering behaviour of earth materials.
- Geotechnical engineering uses principles of soil mechanics and rock mechanics to investigate subsurface conditions and materials.
- Geotechnical engineering evaluate stability of natural slopes and man-made soil deposits; assess risks posed by site conditions; design earthworks and structure foundations; and monitor site conditions, earthwork and foundation construction.
*Source- Books and Wikipedia.