Explain the following : (i) Step index fiber (ii) Graded index fiber.

Explain the following : (i) Step index fiber (ii) Graded index fiber.
Explain the following : (i) Step index fiber (ii) Graded index fiber.

(i) Step Index Fiber

Optical fibers can have different refractive index profiles. Apart from such fibers where light is guided at the air–glass interface, the simplest index profile is a rectangular one, where the refractive index is constant within the fiber core, and is higher than in the cladding. Fibers of that kind are called step-index fibers. That term also includes design with multiple index steps – for example, with additional rings of increased or depressed index.

(ii) Graded Index Fiber

In fiber optics, a graded index is an optical fiber whose core has a refractive index that decreases with increasing radial distance from the optical axis of the fiber. Because parts of the core closer to the fiber axis have a higher refractive index than the parts near the cladding, light rays follow sinusoidal paths down the fiber. The most common refractive index profile for a graded-index fiber is very nearly parabolic. The parabolic profile results in continual refocusing of the rays in the core, and minimizes modal dispersion.

*SOURCE: Internet and Books

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