# Surveying Solved Questions | Surveying Solved Assignment 1 | Surveying | By Ashutosh Nautiyal and Akhand Dutta

1. State two primary divisions of surveying. Ans 1. The two primary divisions of surveying are as follows:- Plane Surveying:- In Plane Surveying, it is assumed that the earth's surface is a plane and therefore no corrections are necessary for the earth's curvature. These surveys deal with areas of limited extent (areas less than 200 km2). Plane surveying is done for engineering projects on large scale such as factories, bridges, dams, canals, highways, railways, etc. It is also used for establishing boundaries.

## 1. State two primary divisions of surveying.

Ans 1. The two primary divisions of surveying are as follows:-

Plane Surveying:-

In Plane Surveying, it is assumed that the earth's surface is a plane and therefore no corrections are necessary for the earth's curvature. These surveys deal with areas of limited extent (areas less than 200 km2). Plane surveying is done for engineering projects on large scale such as factories, bridges, dams, canals, highways, railways, etc. It is also used for establishing boundaries.

Geodetic Surveying:-

In Geodetic Surveying, the shape (or curvature) of the earth's surface is considered. A higher degree of precision is exercised in linear and angular measurements in geodetic surveying. The highest standards of accuracy are necessary. These surveys extend over large areas. It deals in fixing widely spaced control points, which may afterwards be used as necessary control points for fixing minor control points for the plane survey. It is carried out by the Department of National Survey of India. Surveying

## 2. Enumerate the fundamental parameters of surveying measurement?

Ans 2. The fundamental parameters of surveying are as follows:-

• To measure the Horizontal Distance between points.

• To measure the Vertical elevation between points.

• To find out the Relative direction of lines by measuring horizontal angles with reference to any arbitrary direction and

• To find out Absolute direction by measuring horizontal angles with reference to a fixed direction.

These parameters are utilised to find out the relative or absolute coordinates of a point/location.

## 3. State the basic principles of surveying.

Ans 3. There are two basic principles of Surveying:-

To Work From Whole To Part:-

It is the main principle of Surveying. A method violating this principle should not be adopted until and unless there is no alternative. Its main idea is to localise the errors and prevent their accumulation. In surveying large areas, a system of control points are identified and they are located with high precision. Then secondary control points are located using lesser precise methods.
The details of the localised areas are measured and plotted with respect to the secondary control points. This is called working from whole to part.

To Locate A Point By At Least Two Measurements:-

Two control points (any two important features) are selected in the area and the distance between them is measured accurately. The line joining the control points is plotted to the scale on a drawing sheet. Now, the desired point can be plotted by making two suitable measurements from the given control points.

## 4. State the basic assumptions of plane surveying.

Ans 4.  The basic assumptions of plane surveying are as follows:-

•  All distances and directions are horizontal;

•  The direction of the plumb line is the same at all points within the limits of the survey;

•  All angles (both horizontal and vertical) are plane angles;

•  Elevations are with reference to a datum.

## 5. Differentiate between plan and map.

Ans 5. Plan: Orthographic representation of features on or near the surface of the earth in Large Scale on a horizontal plane.

Map: Graphical representation of features on or near the surface of the earth in a small scale on a horizontal plane and is constructed using a projection system other than orthographic.

The basic differences are as follows:

A map

•  A map is a representation of the earth’s surface or any part of it, on a sheet of paper.
•  Map can be used for representing countries, states, villages, town etc.

A plan

•  A plan is a drawing of a small area on a large scale, on a sheet of paper.
•  Plan is used for representing the things which can't be represented in the map.

## 6. Enumerate the essential elements of a map.

Ans 6. 1. Title:

The title is one of the most important feature which grabs the reader’s attention. A title is given to make the readers familiar with the theme being presented.

2. Legend:

The legend serves as the decoder for the symbology in the data frame. Therefore, it is also commonly known as the key.

3. Direction:

The Direction is shown on a map with the help of a compass rose. The compass rose shows the directions of the map so that the observer can relate those directions to the real world.

4. North Arrows:

The north arrow is for the orientation. This allows the observer to determine the direction of the map as it relates to due north.

5. Scale (Distance):

Distance or scale should be indicated or implied unless the audience is so familiar with the map area or distance of such little relative importance that it can be assumed by the audience.

## 7. Which of the following scale is the smallest and largest respectively:

### (i) 1 cm = 10 meter. (ii) 1: 10,000. (iii) R.F=1/100, 000 (iii) 1cm=1000 Km.

Ans 7. Smallest: (iv.) 1 cm = 1000 km

Largest: (i.) 1 cm = 10m.

*Self Typed
*Source- Internet, Books, Self-Analysis
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