Basic Concepts of Surveying (Part 1)
Surveying
 Surveying is defined as the art and science of obtaining quantified and qualified measurements, the interpretation of these measurements and a meaningful presentation of result.
 Surveying is the collection of data or information.
 We are concerned with the surveying of geoinformation:
For engineering projects
For geographical mapping
 In surveying, there is a need for a reference system for fixing relative positions of points.
Basic Concepts of Surveying (Part 1) 
Examples where Surveying is needed:
 Construction of a building
It includes:
 Site selection
 Knowledge of topography (Map)
 Planning building on it
 Transfer building onto the site
 Town planning
It includes:
 Site selection
 Knowledge of topography (Map)
 Planning town on it
 Transfer the town onto the ground
 Euro Tunnel
 Deformation of a dam
 Bridge planning
 The tilt of a tower (Taj Mahal)
 Artillery bombing
 Missile
Explanatory Video
Surveying: Two categories

Surveying
Bringing the ground/terrain in laboratory/office for working upon it.

Laying out
Taking the work onto the ground as per design specifications.
Reference System for measuring Geoinformation of the Earth Surface
 XY plane (it can be used only for a mathematical surface).
 Geoid (everywhere in this surface, the potential is the same).
 MSL or Mean Sea Level (it is a geoid which is the average surface of the sea and it is measured over a period of 19 years).
 Ellipsoid
There are two types of Surveying:
Plane Surveying
 The surveying in which the earth's surface is considered to be flat.
 For a 20 km distance in the xdirection, the difference in distances between the arc and the corresponding chord will only be 10 mm.
 For a 20 km distance in the zdirection (or the geoidal height), the difference in distances between the arc and the corresponding chord will be 16 m which is a significant value.
 Plane surveying can be done for making a planimetric map which is only plotting X and Y (not Z or geoidal height).
 These surveys deal with areas of limited extent (areas less than 200 km^{2}).
 For engineering projects like bridges, factories, dams, canals, railways, highways, etc. plane surveying is done.
Geodetic Surveying
 The surveying in which the earth's curvature is considered.
 A higher degree of precision is exercised in linear and angular measurements in geodetic surveying.
 These surveys extend over large areas (such as a State or a Country).
*Self Typed
*Source Internet, Books, SelfAnalysis