__Hydraulics Engineering Syllabus__

Hydraulics Engineering |

## Course Objective:

- To introduce the students to various hydraulic engineering problems like open channel machines.

## Course Outcomes:

At the end of the course, the student will be able to:-

1. Relate the theory and practice of problems in hydraulic engineering

2. Derive the governing equations of transients in pipes and channels

3. Apply the method of characteristics and finite difference methods to solve unsteady flow problems in pipes and channels

4. Analyze transients in pumping and hydropower systems

5. Analyze the dam-break problem

## Module 1:

Laminar Flow and Turbulent Flow -Laminar flow through circular pipes, annulus and parallel plates. Stoke's law, Measurement of viscosity. Reynolds experiment, Transition from laminar to turbulent flow, Definition of turbulence, scale and intensity, Causes of turbulence, instability, mechanism of turbulence and effect of turbulent flow in pipes. Reynolds stresses, semi-empirical theories of turbulence, Prandtl's mixing length theory, universal velocity distribution equation. Resistance to flow of fluid in smooth and rough pipes, Moody's diagram.

## Module 2:

Boundary-Layer Analysis Dimensional Analysis and Hydraulic Similitude -Assumption and concept of boundary layer theory. Boundary-layer thickness, displacement, momentum & energy thickness, laminar and turbulent boundary layers on a flat plate; laminar sub-layer, smooth and rough boundaries. Local and average friction coefficients. Separation and Control. Dimensional homogeneity, Rayleigh method, Buckingham's Pi method and other methods. Dimensionless groups. Similitude, Model studies, Types of models. Application of dimensional analysis and model studies to fluid flow problem.

## Module 3:

Open Channel Flow, Uniform Flow and Non-Uniform Flow Comparison between open channel flow and pipe flow, geometrical parameters of a channel, classification of open channels classification of open channel flow, Velocity Distribution of channel section. Uniform Flow-Continuity Equation, Energy Equation and Momentum Equation, Characteristics of the uniform flaw, Chery's formula, Manning's formula. Factors affecting Manning's Roughness Coefficient "a" Most economical section of the channel. Computation of Uniform flow, Normal depth Non-Uniform Flow-Specific energy, Specific energy curve, critical flow, discharge curve Specific force Specific depth, and Critical depth. Channel Transitions Measurement of Discharge and Velocity - Venturi Flume, Standing Wave Flume. Parshall Flume, Broad Crested Weir. Measurement of Velocity- Current meter, Floats, Hot-wire anemometer. Gradually Variol Flow-Dynamic Equation of Gradually Varied Flow, Classification of channel bottom slopes, Classification of surface profile, Characteristics of surface profile. Computation of water surface profile by graphical, numerical and analytical approaches. Direct Step method, Graphical Integration method and direct integration method.

## Module 4:

Hydraulic Jump and Flow through Pipes Theory of hydraulic jump, Elements and characteristics of hydraulic jump in a rectangular Channel, length and height of the jump, location of the jump. Types, applications and location of hydraulic jump. Energy dissipation and other uses, surge as a moving hydraulic jump: Positive and negative surges. Dynamics of Fluid Flow-Momentum principle, applications Force on plates, pipe bends, and moments of momentum equation Flow through Pipes: Loss of head through pipes, Darcy-Wiesbatch equation, minor losses, total energy equation, hydraulic gradient line, Pipes in series, equivalent pipes, pipes in parallel, flow through laterals, flows in dead-end pipes, siphon, power transmission through pipes, nozzles. Analysis of pipe networks: Hardy Cross method, water hammer in pipes and control measures, branching of pipes, three reservoir problem.

## Module 5:

Computational Fluid Dynamics: Basic equations of fluid dynamics, Grid generation Introduction to inviscid incompressible flow. Boundary layer flow as applicable to C.F.D. Hydro informatics: Concept of hydro informatics-scope of internet and web-based modelling in water resources engineering.

## Text/Reference Books:

1. Hydraulics and Fluid Mechanics, P.M. Modi and S.M. Seth, Standard Book House

2. Theory and Applications of Fluid Mechanics, K. Subramanya, Tata McGraw Hill.

3. Open channel Flow, K. Subramanya, Tata McGraw Hill.

4. Open Channel Hydraulics, Ven Te Chow, Tata McGraw Hill

5. Burnside, C.D., "Electromagnetic Distance Measurement," Beekman Publishers, 1971.

## Supplementary Website for References:

E-learning NPTEL Lectures (Web: http://nptel.ac.in)

*Self Typed

*Source- Books, Internet, Self-Analysis